Molecular pathways associated with stress resilience and drug resistance in the chronic mild stress rat model of depression--a gene expression study. Your in-text citations are just as important as your reference section. While most articles, books, and other reference materials will include an author attribution, some sources lack information on authorship. Citing a Source you found in Another Source When you are unable to access an original source, you can cite its findings or argument as they are presented in a different source. Psychological Reports , 91 3 , 1195-1201. Quotes of 40+ words block quotes Furthermore, be aware that when quoting 40 or more words, specific formatting rules apply.
Long Quotations 40 or more words Others have contradicted this view: Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Multiple works, different authors in the same parentheses Arrange in alphabetical order by first author's surname. They did not read Khan's publication, so they cannot cite in in their paper. Two or More Works by the Same Author Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote. When this happens, use the name of the organization as the author. In subsequent citations, write only the first author's surname followed by et al.
It was one of those rare smiles with a quality of eternal reassurance in it, that you may come across four or five times in life. Cohen's work will be included in the References list. Note: Remember, you do not need to create formal citations in your reference list for classical works. Multiple publications from the same author s in the same year When you use multiple publications from the same author that are also published in the same year, the in-text citation looks exactly the same. Two or More Sources in one Parenthetical Citation Sometimes you need to cite more than one source for an idea you present in your work. Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. They include the author's last name, year of publication, and, for quotations only, page numbers.
Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the manual. Some group author names are spelled out in the first in text citation, and then abbreiviated in the second and subsequent citations. If the author is identified as Anonymous, your in-text citation and reference entry should list the author as Anonymous. These suffixes are mentioned in the reference list as well. Placement of Citations for Quoted Material Specific page numbers for paraphrased or quoted material appear within the parenthetical citation following the abbreviation for page p. Write the full title if short, otherwise include only a few words from the title.
Information can be missing, confusing for the reader or simply different. If you are not able to find the primary source, you should cite it through the source that led you to it. Source with No Author Cite the first few words of the reference list entry usually the title and the year. Write out the full name of the group in all parenthetical citations: Example: The May 2011 study focused on percentages of tax money that goes to imprisonment over education funding National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 2011. If the name is easy to abbreviate, then write out the full name in the first citation, and abbreviate it in all subsequent citations.
Different authors with the same surname If the surname of two authors is the same, you should include the initials of these authors, even if the publication year is different. If the title is very long, then you can shorten it in your citation. This format applies to most kinds of references with very few exceptions. Citing the Same Source within the Same Paragraph When you refer to an author in your sentence, use the author's surname and date for the first citation. . However, when quoting, you also need to include the page number s from the original source. Authors with the Same Last Name Basic Format: Last name, Initials, Year Example: Scott, M.
Group author names should be abbreviated when the name is too long. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 25-43. Below are the guides and examples that will help you in writing in-text citations. Titles of articles, chapters, and web pages need double quotation marks. In this article, we will focus on in-text citations. Citing a source within a source If you want to cite a source that you have found in another source, you can do one of two things.
Read more about this in our article on. The table below provides an overview of what to do in each case. Always indicate whose idea you are taking. Always remember, if you cited a source in your paper, it must also be included in the. When you are writing an , you will often need to refer to works by other people.
Parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text: Example: According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s 2008. If you copy this document, please include our copyright notice and the name of the writer; if you revise it, please add your name to the list of writers. Example: The study did not come to any definitive conclusions Rothschild et al. This system has two components: the in-text citation and the reference list. For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example will be provided. Direct quotes should always have page numbers.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 th ed. Scroll down for additional examples. Specific Part of a Source Basic Format: Last name, Year, Page or Paragraph number Quotes Short Quotations less than 40 words Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. Citing sources without an author: If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry in many cases, the title and the year. Single Author Last name first, followed by author initials.